The Information Paradox

Image by Pete Linforth from Pixabay

What is the Information Paradox?

The information paradox was an issue that was originally brought to light by Stephen Hawking when he supposed that information is destroyed when it falls into a black hole. The reason was because of the quantum effects happening along the border of the black hole. 


Virtually Nothing?

However, this proposes a kind of big problem because according to information theory, particularly quantum physics, quantum properties, i.e. information, can not be destroyed.  

The quantum effects that he was particularly referring to were virtual particles.

Veepees do something incredible which most people who have studied even a little bit of physics know about; They pop into existence for a brief moment of time 
as a pair of matter and anti-matter particles only to annihilate each other as if they never existed at all. 


Yet, when Veepees do this close to the Event Horizon , something interesting happens. The gravity is so strong that the Virtual Particles never get to recombine.

Instead, one of the particles gets pulled into the black hole faster than light to never come out again; and the other particle flies off into the universe. This acts like a kind of radiation as black holes are literally radiating away their mass.


Hawking Radiation

SIDENOTE- This may also explain why Matter ended up beating anti-matter in the very beginning of the universe.

Hawking called this phenomenon... well, you guessed it. - Hawking Radiation.  

But this would imply that information is lost; however, this just could not be true, so what we have is a paradox. 

We have two postulates that contradict each other in one of the worst ways possible. 


Analogy Time

Imagine something physical that should have eternal properties.

For example, you might think of the eternal properties of an idea. It's not that properties themselves are necessarily eternal, but you just cannot divorce the properties from the physical object because if you change the properties, you change the very idea of the thing. The physical properties and the idea are one and the same. 

We can imagine a car again.

The idea of a car is something that you can sit inside of and drive with wheels that is powered by either gas or electricity.If you remove these two concepts, you probably don't have a car. You might have something else. So, in a sense, you could say an externally powered box that you can drive are some pretty basic, eternal properties of a car. 

Sure, you could come up with variations of the car, or create broader concepts like a truck, suv, jeep, go-kart, golf cart, tractor, etc. but ideally a thing you can sit inside of and steer with wheels that has external power is car-like. 

Now, imagine, we take these eternal and necessary properties of the car and scramble them in such a way that there never exist the idea of car ever again. But, that seems impossible. Yet, that's what it appeared black holes were doing, erasing the very ability for ideas and properties to be re-united. 

That would be like no matter how many wheels, engines and body frames you gave any intelligent creature, they just couldn't ever see how the idea of a "car-like" thing could ever come to be. They just couldn't imagine it even if you stacked 4 wheels, a frame, and engine right beside each other; the blueprint of a "car-like" physical object just would never come into existence. 

We would be riding horses and walking forever. 

So, what was the solution?

The solution, of course, comes in the form of the Holographic Principle that insanely posits that the whole damn universe acts something like a hologram because no matter how much you scramble information, the ideas that information can create is never destroyed, at most just near infinitely lost. 

But isn't near infinitely lost effectively the same as destroyed? 


Even if we burn every single book ever written, it's possible by randomly typing infinitely, we would eventually produce everything that was ever written by sheer infinite randomness alone. 


So given enough time would you and I and everyone who has ever existed randomly pop back into existence?

Well, that's the idea of the Boltzman Brain. 





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